Sunday, June 21, 2009

Classification of Taxes

Classification of taxes


1. As to subject matter or object

A. personal, poll or capitation- tax of a fixed amount on individuals residing within a specified territory, without regard to their property, occupation or business. Ex. Community tax (basic)

B. property- imposed on property, real or personal, in proportion to its value, or in accordance with some reasonable method or apportionment. Ex. Real estate Tax

C. Excise- imposed upon the performance of an act, the enjoyment of a privilege, or the engaging in an occupation, profession or business. Ex. Income tax, VAT, Estate Tax, Donor’s Tax


2. As to who bears the burden of the tax


a. Direct- the tax is imposed on the person who also bears the burden thereof
Ex. Income tax, community tax, estate tax

b. Indirect – imposed on the taxpayer who shifts the burden of the tax to another, Ex. VAT, customs duties.


3. As to determination of amount


a. specific – imposed and based on a physical unit of measurement as by head number, weight, length or volume. Ex. Tax on distilled spirits, fermented liquors, cigars


b. Ad Valorem of a fixed proportion of the value of the property with respect to which the tax is assessed. Ex. Real estate tax, excise tax on cars, non essential goods.


4. As to purpose

A. general, fiscal, or revenue- imposed for the general purpose of supporting the government. Ex. Income tax, percentage tax


B. special or regulatory- imposed for a special purpose, to achieve some social or economic objective. Ex. Protective tariffs or custom duties on imported goods intended to protect local industries.


5. As to scope or authority imposing the tax


a. national- imposed by the national government ex. NIRC, custom duties
b. municipal or local- imposed by municipal corporations or local governments ex. Real estate tax,


6. As to graduation of rates.


a. proportional- based on a fixed percentage of the amount of the property, receipts or on other basis to be taxed ex. Real estate tax, VAT

b. progressive and graduated- the rate of the tax increases as the tax base or bracket increases ex. Income tax, estate tax, donor’s tax

c. regressive- the rate of tax decreases as the tax base or bracket increases.

d. degressive- increase of rate is not proportionate to the increase of tax base.

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